I generally don’t take a “rules” approach to photography, as in where some say that following certain rules or formulas are what it takes to produce compelling photography. The one possible exception may be the “rule” that says to fill the frame with your subject. Nine times out of ten, I find that doing this results in a stronger composition.
It’s been said that photography is a subtractive art – taking things out of the frame until the only things that are left are those that are necessary for the photograph, and nothing else. Because the world is a visually chaotic and cluttered place, this is where much of the challenge of composing for a photograph comes from. Indeed, I often have found it simply is not possible to compose a photograph that I want, because I cannot eliminate distracting and non-essential elements from the frame.
Filling the frame with your subject is one way toward subtracting out those kinds of distracting and non-essential elements. Obviously, the more space your subject takes up in the frame, the less space there is for anything else. It probably seems intuitive and simple to understand when I write it here this way, but I think many novice aspiring fine art photographers make the mistake of not filling the frame with their subject, and consequently having too many distracting and non-essential elements therein. I know I did. It really is a skill to learn just where to draw that fine line.
On a related point, filling the frame with your subject really requires that you pay attention to your background. If you have filled the frame with your subject, odds are you are either standing very close to it or have zoomed in on it with a telephoto lens. This makes it easy to change how the background looks, since slight shifts in camera position will have a big effect on what appears in the background. So I rarely accept that the first spot in which I’ve chosen to stand is the best. Instead, I move around and try out different camera positions to see how that affects what appears in the background. The background is a critical part of a photograph, and is worth investing the time to get right.